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Solaris is an operating system.
# svcadm enable ldap/client # ldapclient init \ -a proxyDN=cn=proxyuser,dc=wikimedia,dc=org \ -a domainName=pmtpa.wmnet \ -a proxyPassword=whatever \ -a authenticationMethod=simple 10.0.2.2
Solaris Volume Manager (formerly Solstice DiskSuite) is a software RAID package for Solaris.
- display arrays:
# metastat -c d8 m 19GB d6 d7 d6 s 19GB c0t2d0s1 c0t3d0s1 d7 s 19GB c0t4d0s1 c0t5d0s1 d2 m 380GB d0 d1 (resync-46%) d0 s 380GB c0t0d0s1 c0t1d0s7 c0t2d0s0 d1 s 380GB c0t3d0s0 c0t4d0s0 c0t5d0s0 d5 m 8.5GB d3 d4 d3 s 8.5GB c0t1d0s0 d4 s 9.2GB c0t0d0s0
(leave off -c for more detailed information)
- create a new raid-0 array named d0 on c0t0d0s0 and c0t1d0s0:
# metainit -f d0 1 2 c0t0d0s0 c0t1d0s0
- create a new raid-1 array named d2 from d0 and d1:
# metainit -f d2 -m d0 # metattach d2 d1
(RAID-10 is accomplished by striping mirrors, i.e. it looks like RAID 0+1, except it's not, really)
Solaris uses Service Management Facility for services. Each service has an identifier called an FMRI, that looks like a URI.
# svcs -a (display all services) STATE STIME FMRI legacy_run 16:57:12 lrc:/etc/rcS_d/S50sk98sol legacy_run 16:57:43 lrc:/etc/rc2_d/S20sysetup ... # svcs -a | grep online (displays online service) online 16:57:07 svc:/system/svc/restarter:default online 16:57:08 svc:/network/pfil:default online 16:57:08 svc:/network/loopback:default ... # svcadm disable sendmail (disable sendmail) # svcadm enable sendmail (restart it again) # svcs -x (display failed services) svc:/network/security/ktkt_warn:default (Kerberos V5 warning messages daemon) State: maintenance since Mon 05 Sep 2005 12:04:11 PM BST Reason: Restarter svc:/network/inetd:default gave no explanation. See: http://sun.com/msg/SMF-8000-9C See: ktkt_warnd(1M) Impact: This service is not running.
Misc differences from Linux
- /etc/vfstab, not /etc/fstab
- (NOT FOR ZFS!) use share to share NFS filesystems:
share -F nfs -orw=10.0.0.1 /export/homefs
- make sure to edit /etc/dfs/dfstab afterwards to include the share command, so it takes effect on reboot.
- For ZFS, do this instead:
zfs set sharenfs=rw=10.0.0.1 export/homefs
- no need to edit any files, sharenfs is persistent.
- df looks odd. use df -h
- There is no md5sum. You can build md5 from source (get it from sunfreeware.com); by default it will install into /usr/local/bin. On ms1 and ms4 it has been installed into /opt/ts/bin along with most locally-installed software, and then symlinked into /usr/bin.
- There is no rsync by default. We have a local build on ms1 and ms4 in /opt/ts/bin which is symlinked into /usr/bin/rsync.
- If you want to mount a filesystem by hand use -F filsesystemtype (not -t), here's an example:
- mount -F nfs -o bg,soft,intr,vers=3 ms4:/export/upload /mnt/tmp
We use the Toolserver (TS) packages for installing extra software. All the package names start with TS, like TSmutt, and install into /opt/ts/bin (config in /etc/opt/ts).
Check out the ts-specs repo:
Build + install something:
$ pkgtool build www/TSphp53
You can also use build-only (to skip installing), install-pkgs and uninstall-pkgs. Be aware that one spec, like TSmutt, might map to several Solaris packages (TSmutt-root, TSmutt).
Check for packages that need upgrading:
$ ./upgrade -a
Live upgrade of OS
Ordinarily you will be able to just bring your current copy of Solaris up to speed (or create an alternate boot environment and bring that up to speed) with the /opt/ts/bin/pca command (see Live Upgrade quickstart for more info on this). Some useful commands:
- pca -l
- show all patches not yet installed
- showrev -p
- show the patches installed on your currently running system
lumount name-of-alt-boot-env-here showrev -p -R /.alt.name-of-alt-boot-env-here
- show the patches installed on your alternate boot environment
Note that PCA is not part of Solaris. The Sun equivalent is smpatch, but it's annoying to use, so use PCA instead (everyone else does).
See Installing Solaris.
Installing free packages
Some packages (for eample, sudo) are available as free packages from sunfreeware. You can download gzipped "package streams" (use wget to retrieve them from the site). These can then be installed by
pkgadd -d path-to-gunzipped-file
You may find these will have dependencies; even if your system has the particular libraries in /usr/lib, you probably need to install the dependencies, because the versions will be different. These packages usually wind up in /usr/local/lib.
- /usr/platform/`uname -i`/sbin/prtdiag
This command will show you the model (eg. Sun Fire X4540), BIOS, CPU and memory info.
This shows you compoment information and serial numbers. If you do
smbios | grep Serial
the first number will be the serial number Sun wants for support.
On Sun Fire X4500 and X4540s, sometimes when you reboot one of these hosts, it will not come back. If you get a serial console from the IPMI interface you may see that it's hung asking a question like "Do you wish to have it mounted read-write on /a?" This means that it tried to boot one of the images in "safe mode". You'll need to reboot from the IPMI interface, get your serial console session back, and choose the correct boot image in the grub menu. (Choose the regular image corresponding to the one that was being booted in safe mode.)
On ms6 the default kernel has been moved to to the last entry in the grub boot menu. (You can determine which boot menu file is in use by the command bootadm list-menu.) This is on the theory that something the ilom (maybe) was causing down-arrows to be generated which wound up causing the last entry, i.e. the failsafe mode.