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Lift Wing

A scalable machine learning model serving infrastructure on Kubernetes using KServe.


Software Version
Kubernetes v1.16.5
Istio v1.9.5
Knative v0.18.1
KServe v0.8.0


Istio is a service-mesh where we can run our ML-services. It is installed using the istioctl package, which has been added to the WMF APT repository (Debian buster). See packages, we are currently running Istio 1.9.5 (istioctl: 1.9.5-1)


We use Knative Serving for running serverless containers on Kubernetes using Istio. It also allows for various deployment strategies like canary, blue-green, A/B tests, etc.




We use KServe for its custom InferenceService resource. It enables us to expose our ML models as asynchronous micro-services.





  • ml-serve1001-4


  • ml-serve2001-4
  • ml-staging200[12]




We host our Machine Learning models as Inference Services (isvcs), which are asynchronous micro-services that can transform raw feature data and make predictions. Each inference service has production images that are published in the WMF Docker Registry via the Deployment Pipeline. These images are then used for an isvc configuration in our ml-services helmfile in the operations/deployment-charts repo.


We store model binary files in Swift, which is an open-source s3-compatible object store that is widely-used across the WMF. The model files are downloaded by the storage-initializer (init:container) when an Inference Service pod is created. The storage-initializer then mounts the model binary in the pod at /mnt/models/ and can be loaded by the predictor container.


We are developing inference services with Docker and testing on the ML Sandbox using our own WMF KServe images & charts.

We previously used multiple sandbox clusters running MiniKF.


We are serving ML models as Inference Services, which are containerized applications. The code is currently hosted on Gerrit.

Gerrit mono-repo:

Github mirror:

Current Inference Services

  • Revscoring models (migrated from ORES)
Model type Kubernetes namespace Images Supported wikis
articlequality revscoring-articlequality articlequality en, eu, fa, frwikisource, fr, gl, nl, pt, ru, sv, tr, uk, wikidata
draftquality revscoring-draftquality draftquality en, pt
damaging revscoring-editquality-damaging editquality ar, bs, ca, cs, de, en, eswikibooks, es, eswikiquote, et, fa, fi, fr, he, hi, hu, it, ja, ko, lv, nl, no, pl, pt, ro, ru, sq, sr, sv, uk, wikidata, zh
goodfaith revscoring-editquality-goodfaith ar, bs, ca, cs, de, en, eswikibooks, es, eswikiquote, et, fa, fi, fr, he, hi, hu, it, ja, ko, lv, nl, no, pl, pt, ro, ru, sq, sr, sv, uk, wikidata, zh
reverted revscoring-editquality-reverted bn, el, enwiktionary, gl, hr, id, is, ta, translate, vi
articletopic revscoring-articletopic topic ar, cs, en, eu, hu, hy, ko, sr, uk, vi, wikidata
drafttopic revscoring-drafttopic ar, cs, en, eu, hu, hy, ko, sr, uk, vi
  • Language agnostic models
Model name Kubernetes namespace Images Model Card
outlink-topic-model articletopic-outlink outlink, outlink-transformer Language_agnostic_link-based_article_topic_model_card
revert-risk-model experimental revertrisk


Internal discovery endpoint

Once an InferenceService is deployed it should become available internally via

  • the discovery endpoint: https://inference.discovery.wmnet:30443/v1/models/{MODEL_NAME}:predict
  • with the HTTP Host header: {MODEL_NAME}.{KUBERNETES_NAMESPACE}

You can find MODEL_NAME and KUBERNETES_NAMESPACE in the tables in the previous section.

Note that the revscoring model group has its own model for each supported wiki, so the MODEL_NAME combines the wiki code and the model type i.e. {wiki_code}wiki-{model_type}. For example, enwiki-articlequality, arwiki-damaging, bnwiki-reverted, eswikibookswiki-goodfaith.


Let's say you want to query enwiki-goodfaith model via curl:

aikochou@stat1004:~$ cat input.json 
{ "rev_id": 1083325118 }

aikochou@stat1004:~$ curl "https://inference.discovery.wmnet:30443/v1/models/enwiki-goodfaith:predict" -X POST -d @input.json -i -H "Host:" --http1.1
HTTP/1.1 200 OK
content-length: 209
content-type: application/json; charset=UTF-8
date: Mon, 31 Oct 2022 16:51:54 GMT
server: istio-envoy
x-envoy-upstream-service-time: 361

{"enwiki": {"models": {"goodfaith": {"version": "0.5.1"}}, "scores": {"1083325118": {"goodfaith": {"score": {"prediction": true, "probability": {"false": 0.033641298577500645, "true": 0.9663587014224994}}}}}}}


If you want to query outlink-topic-model via python:

import json
import requests

inference_url = 'https://inference.discovery.wmnet:30443/v1/models/outlink-topic-model:predict'
headers = {
    'Host': '',
    'Content-Type': 'application/x-www-form-urlencoded',
data = {"lang": "en", "page_title": "Wings of Fire (novel series)"}

response =, headers=headers, data=json.dumps(data))


Run the python script:

aikochou@stat1004:~$ python 
{"prediction": {"article": " of Fire (novel series)", "results": [{"topic": "Culture.Literature", "score": 1.0000100135803223}, {"topic": "Culture.Media.Books", "score": 0.9926641583442688}, {"topic": "Culture.Media.Media*", "score": 0.8774868249893188}]}}


proxy error

If you get error like curl: (56) Received HTTP code 403 from proxy after CONNECT or the following error from python:

requests.exceptions.ProxyError: HTTPSConnectionPool(host='inference.discovery.wmnet', port=30443): Max retries exceeded with url: /v1/models/outlink-topic-model:predict (Caused by ProxyError('Cannot connect to proxy.', OSError('Tunnel connection failed: 403 Forbidden')))

that's because you probably set http proxy env vars before, and you are going through the http(s) proxy for a .discovery.wmnet domain (internal one).

Try with unset https_proxy, it should work afterwards. (T287056#8138803)

ssl error

If you're using a conda environment, and get the following from python:

requests.exceptions.SSLError: HTTPSConnectionPool(host='inference.discovery.wmnet', port=30443): Max retries exceeded with url: /v1/models/outlink-topic-model:predict (Caused by SSLError(SSLCertVerificationError(1, '[SSL: CERTIFICATE_VERIFY_FAILED] certificate verify failed: unable to get local issuer certificate (_ssl.c:1091)')))

Try to run export REQUESTS_CA_BUNDLE=/etc/ssl/certs/wmf-ca-certificates.crt before executing the code. (T317328)