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Network cheat sheet

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Revision as of 09:26, 26 January 2017 by imported>Elukey (→‎Edit ACLs for Network ports)
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This document is about working on the Juniper devices used in the Wikimedia Infrastructure.

SSH access to network equipment

Junipers take ssh keys. huzzah!WMF routers and switches follow the Infrastructure_naming_conventions.

For example, the hostnames of eqiad core routers are and


Access switches are named asw-${rownum}-${dc}.mgmt.${dc}.wmnet. Hence, row B switches in eqiad and codfw can be accessed as follows:

ssh asw-b-eqiad.mgmt.eqiad.wmnet
ssh asw-b-codfw.mgmt.codfw.wmnet

Operational mode vs Configuration mode

Juniper devices can be used in two ways:

  • Operational mode (default when logging in):
  • Configuration mode (to apply network configuration changes):
elukey@re0.cr2-eqiad> edit
Entering configuration mode


Juniper 101 from a IRC session with Faidon:

11:53 <paravoid> there are two modes in the cli
11:53 <paravoid> the operational mode and the configuration mode
11:54 <paravoid> when you first login you enter the operational one
11:54 <paravoid> so "show interfaces ae3" shows you the state of the interface 
                 (link speed, physical link etc.)
11:54 <paravoid> and "show bgp summary" shows you the BGP summary etc.
11:55 <paravoid> and a few other commands not in the show hierarchy like
                 "request routing-engine login" and whatnot
11:56 <paravoid> to view the config in the operational mode you do "show configuration ..."
11:56 <paravoid> if you want to edit the config, you enter the config mode
11:56 <paravoid> by typing "edit"
11:56 <paravoid> (and leave it with "quit" or "exit")
11:56 <paravoid> once you're there, "show" does something entirely different
11:57 <paravoid> it basically does what "show configuration" does in the operational mode
11:57 <paravoid> so "show interfaces ae3" will show you the config section for interface ae3
11:57 <paravoid> and "show" will do the same as "show configuration" in the operational mode
11:58 <paravoid> so the config now
11:59 <paravoid> there are two ways of viewing it (and editing it, but that's more complicated)
11:59 <paravoid> one is the hierarchical view, the other one is set
11:59 <paravoid> the hierarchical is the thing you see with "show"
11:59 <paravoid> system { domain-name ...; services { ssh { root-login allow; } } }
12:00 <paravoid> set is the thing you see with "| display set"
12:00 <paravoid> in the config mode, you can navigate the hierarchy with edit
12:00 <paravoid> so while you're in there (having typed "edit")
12:00 <paravoid> you can type
12:00 <paravoid> "edit system"
12:01 <paravoid> and then you're only under the system part of the hierarchy
12:01 <paravoid> so "show", no arguments, will show you only what's under sysetm
12:01 <paravoid> and "show services" will show everything that's under "system { services { ... } }"
12:02 <paravoid> similarly you can go deeper by typing "edit services",
                 or if you're at the root "edit system services"
12:02 <paravoid> same with set
12:02 <paravoid> "set" takes a relative path
12:03 <paravoid> so in your case, you can do

# The chat was about editing the analytics-in4 input filter
# (rules for all the ports in the Analytics VLAN)

12:03 <paravoid> set firewall family inet filter analytics-in4 term mysql from destination-address
12:03 <paravoid> or
12:03 <paravoid> edit firewall family inet filter analytics-in4
12:03 <paravoid> set term mysql from destination-address
12:04 <paravoid> (or any other combination)
12:05 <paravoid> oh and you can navigate the other way out of the hierarchy
                 by typing "up" or if you want to go to the root with "top"
12:05 <paravoid> "| display set" shows the set command from the root
12:05 <paravoid> so if you're in "edit firewall family inet filter analytics-in4"
                 and type "show | display set" or "show term mysql | display set"
                 you can paste the output as it is.

Edit ACLs for Network ports

We apply ACLs on the router's network ports to filter inbound traffic via Juniper's input filters. Please note that in this case inbound traffic is from the port's point of view, not from what it is attached to it (like a switch or a host). So every input filter that we apply to a specific port (or set of ports) filters traffic coming to the router's port.

Real use case scenario: allow every host in the Analytics VLAN to connect to dbproxy1010.eqiad.wmnet on port 3306.

# Random host belonging to the Analytics VLAN:
# analytics1034.eqiad.wmnet

# Find the port used to reach analytics1034.eqiad.wmnet
elukey@re0.cr1-eqiad> show route analytics1034.eqiad.wmnet
[..]      *[Direct/0] 22w5d 22:31:05
                    > via ae3.1022
# Check ACLs applied to the port
show configuration interfaces ae3.1022
elukey@re0.cr1-eqiad> show configuration interfaces ae3.1022
description "Subnet analytics1-c-eqiad";
vlan-id 1022;
family inet {
    filter {
        input analytics-in4;

# Check the input filter
show configuration firewall family inet filter analytics-in4
term mysql {
    from {
        destination-address {
        protocol tcp;
        destination-port 3306;
    then accept;

# Add dbproxy1010's IP to the mysql term list
# This must be done in "edit" mode
elukey@re0.cr1-eqiad> edit
Entering configuration mode

elukey@re0.cr1-eqiad# set firewall family inet filter analytics-in4 term mysql from destination-address

# Then commit with a meaningful message and quit
commit comment "Added dbproxy1010 to the analytics-in4 input filter"

# Do the same with dbproxy1010's port if necessary, re-appliying this procedure.

Another similar use case is removing a "destination-port" from a term in a input filter:

# Check the input filter
show configuration firewall family inet filter analytics-in4
term mysql {
    from {
        destination-address {
        protocol tcp;
        destination-port [ 3306 8000 ];
    then accept;

# Remove port 8000 from destination-port
delete firewall family inet filter analytics-in4 term mysql from destination-port 8000

Matching hosts with rack numbers

To find out which cache hosts are connected on codfw's row c:

ema@asw-c-codfw> show interfaces descriptions | match cp 
xe-2/0/3        up    up   cp2013
xe-2/0/4        up    up   cp2014
xe-2/0/5        up    up   cp2015
xe-7/0/3        up    up   cp2016
xe-7/0/4        up    up   cp2017
xe-7/0/5        up    up   cp2018

Interfaces names, reported in the first column, follow Juniper's interfaces naming convention. The first part of the interface name, xe in the examples above, is the media type. xe stands for 10 Gigabit Ethernet interface, other options would have been ge for Gigabit Ethernet and et for 40 Gigabit Ethernet. The second part is the FPC, which allows us to find out the specific rack number to with the host is connected. The first three hosts (cp2013, cp2014 and cp2015) are on c2 (xe-2), while cp2016, cp2017 and cp2018 are on c7 (xe-7). The last number represents the port number.

Racktables also allows to check the mapping between racks and hostnames.

Operational mode commands

show ethernet-switching table           # shows mac addresses

show ethernet-switching table interface # shows mac addresses for that interface

show ethernet-switching table vlan # shows mac addresses for vlan

show interfaces descriptions Interface Admin Link Description

ge-1/0/0 up up ms1001
show interfaces terse                   # shows interfaces with ip's in a very short format
show interface ge-1/0/0 (extensive)     # shows interfaces in more detail

monitor interface xe-1/1/0 # shows interface in a real-time updating mode (errors, bits, etc)

show log messages | last 20 # shows log with info

Config commands

Junipers configure after you confirm - you can configure and then double check

  • configure - puts you in config mode
  • exit - takes you up one level (or out of) config mode
  • top - takes you to the top level of config mode
  • show - shows you configuration below that level