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{{Kubernetes nav}}
:''For information about Kubernetes in the Toolforge environment see [[Help:Toolforge/Kubernetes]].''
:''For information about Kubernetes in the Toolforge environment see [[Help:Toolforge/Kubernetes]].''
'''[[w:Kubernetes|Kubernetes]]''' (often abbreviated '''k8s''') is an open-source system for automating deployment, and management of applications running in [[W:Operating-system-level virtualization|containers]]. This page collects some notes/docs on the Kubernetes setup in the Foundation production environment.
'''[[w:Kubernetes|Kubernetes]]''' (often abbreviated '''k8s''') is an open-source system for automating deployment, and management of applications running in [[W:Operating-system-level virtualization|containers]]. This page collects some notes/docs on the Kubernetes setup in the Foundation production environment.
== Clusters ==
The list of currently maintained clusters in WMF, split by realm and team is at [[Kubernetes/Clusters]]
== Packages ==
We deploy kubernetes in WMF production using Debian packages where appropriate. There is an upgrade policy in place for defining the timeframe and versions we run at every point in time. It's under [[Kubernetes/Kubernetes_Infrastructure_upgrade_policy]]. For more technical information on how we build the Debian packages have a look at [[Kubernetes/Packages]]


== Images ==
== Images ==
Line 7: Line 17:
== Services ==
== Services ==


A service in Kubernetes is an 'abstract way to expose an application running on a set of [[Pod]]s as a network service'.
A service in Kubernetes is an 'abstract way to expose an application running on a set of workloads as a network service'.


* https://kubernetes.io/docs/concepts/services-networking/service/
* https://kubernetes.io/docs/concepts/services-networking/service/


* Learn more about [[Deployment pipeline/Migration/Tutorial | Migrating a service to kubernetes]] and [[Deploying a service in kubernetes]].
* Learn more about [[Deployment pipeline/Migration/Tutorial | Migrating a service to kubernetes]] and [[Deployment pipeline]] generally.


== Debugging ==
== Debugging ==
Line 18: Line 28:


== Administration ==
== Administration ==
=== Create a new cluster ===
Documentation for creating a new cluster is in [[Kubernetes/Clusters/New]]
=== Add a new service ===
To add a new service to the clusters:
#Ensure the service has it's ports registered at: [[Service ports]]
#Create deployment user/tokens in the puppet private (you can use a randomly generated 22-character [A-z0-9] password) and public repos. Example commits:
#* '''tokens for service:''' labs/private: https://gerrit.wikimedia.org/r/c/labs/private/+/692672 (plus actual data in the private repo, see <code>e59f9496</code>)
#* '''tokens for user:''' labs/private: https://gerrit.wikimedia.org/r/c/labs/private/+/693169  (plus actual data in the private repo, see <code>51372030</code>)
#* '''token stanzas for service in puppet''': operations/puppet: https://gerrit.wikimedia.org/r/c/operations/puppet/+/692667
#Add a Kubernetes namespace. Example commit:
#* '''kubernetes namespace:''' deployment-charts https://gerrit.wikimedia.org/r/c/operations/deployment-charts/+/693124
#At this point, you can safely merge the changes (after '''somebody from Service Ops validates'''). After merging, it is important to run the commands in the next step, so to avoid impacting other people rolling out changes later on.
#Setting up in staging-codfw cluster (and then to the other clusters)
'''On a cumin server'''
sudo cumin -b 4 -s 2 kubemaster* 'run-puppet-agent'
'''On deploy1002:'''
sudo run-puppet-agent
sudo -i
cd /srv/deployment-charts/helmfile.d/admin_ng/
helmfile -e staging-codfw -i apply
The command above should show you a diff in namespaces/quotas/etc.. related to your new service. If you don't see a diff, ping somebody from the Service Ops team! Check that everything is ok:
  kube_env $YOUR-SERVICE-NAME staging-codfw
  kubectl get ns
  kubectl get pods
You should be able to see info about your namespace. <code>kubectl get pods </code> should show a tiller pod.<br>
'''Repeat for the staging-eqiad, eqiad and codfw clusters even if you aren't ready to fully deploy your service. Leaving undeployed things will impede further operations by other people.'''
==== Deploy a service to staging ====
At this point you should have a a Chart for your service (TODO: link to docs?), and will need to setup a <code>helmfile.d/services</code> directory in the {{Gitweb|project=operations/deployment-charts}} repository for the deployment. You can copy the structure (helmfile.yaml, values.yaml, values-staging.yaml, etc.) from {{Gitweb|project=operations/deployment-charts|file=helmfile.d/services/_example_}} and customize as needed.
You can proceed to deploy the new service to staging for real. Don't worry for TLS (if needed) since in staging it will be added a default config for your service auto-magically. Things are slightly different for production.
'''On deploy1002:'''
  cd /srv/deployment-charts/helmfile.d/services/YOUR-SERVICE-NAME-HERE
  helmfile -e staging -i apply
The command above will show a diff related to the new service, make sure  that everything looks fine and then hit Yes to proceed.
==== Testing a service ====
#Now we can test the service in staging. Use the very handy endpoint: <code>http(s)://staging.svc.eqiad.wmnet:$YOUR-SERVICE-PORT</code> to quickly test if everything works as expected.
==== Deploy a service to production ====
#Create certificates for the new service, if it has an HTTPS endpoint (remember that this step for staging is automatically handled for you, but for production it is not).
#[[Kubernetes/Enabling TLS|Enable TLS for Kubernetes deployments]]
#If the new service requires specific secrets, commit them to <code>/srv/private/hieradata/role/common/deployment_server.yaml</code>
#At this point, you need to update the admin config for eqiad and codfw (if you have configs for both of course):
#*On deploy1002: <code>sudo -i; cd /srv/deployment-charts/helmfile.d/admin/codfw/; kube_env admin codfw; ./cluster-helmfile.sh -i apply</code>
#*On deploy1002: <code>sudo -i; cd /srv/deployment-charts/helmfile.d/admin/eqiad/; kube_env admin eqiad; ./cluster-helmfile.sh -i apply</code>
#Then the final step, namely deploying the new service:
#*On deploy1002: <code>cd /srv/deployment-charts/helmfile.d/services/YOUR-SERVICE-NAME-HERE; helmfile -e codfw -i apply</code>
#*On deploy1002: <code>cd /srv/deployment-charts/helmfile.d/services/YOUR-SERVICE-NAME-HERE; helmfile -e eqiad -i apply</code>
The service can now be accessed via the registered port on any of the kubernetes nodes (for manual testing).
If you need the service to be easily accessible from outside of the cluster, you might want to add [[LVS#Add%20a%20new%20load%20balanced%20service|Add a new load balanced service]].


=== Rebooting a worker node ===
=== Rebooting a worker node ===
Line 28: Line 94:
If you feel like being more polite, use kubectl drain, it will configure the worker node to no longer create new pods and move the existing pods to other workers. Draining the node will take time. Rough numbers on 2019-12-11 are at around 60 seconds.
If you feel like being more polite, use kubectl drain, it will configure the worker node to no longer create new pods and move the existing pods to other workers. Draining the node will take time. Rough numbers on 2019-12-11 are at around 60 seconds.


<source lang="shell-session">
<syntaxhighlight lang="shell-session">
# kubectl drain kubernetes1001.eqiad.wmnet
# kubectl drain --ignore-daemonsets kubernetes1001.eqiad.wmnet
# kubectl describe pods  --all-namespaces | awk  '$1=="Node:" {print $NF}' | sort -u
# kubectl describe pods  --all-namespaces | awk  '$1=="Node:" {print $NF}' | sort -u
kubernetes1002.eqiad.wmnet/10.64.16.75
kubernetes1002.eqiad.wmnet/10.64.16.75
Line 44: Line 110:
kubernetes1005.eqiad.wmnet  Ready                      <none>    231d      v1.12.9
kubernetes1005.eqiad.wmnet  Ready                      <none>    231d      v1.12.9
kubernetes1006.eqiad.wmnet  Ready                      <none>    231d      v1.12.9
kubernetes1006.eqiad.wmnet  Ready                      <none>    231d      v1.12.9
</source>
</syntaxhighlight>


When the node has been rebooted, it can be configured to reaccept pods using '''kubectl uncordon''', e.g.
When the node has been rebooted, it can be configured to reaccept pods using '''kubectl uncordon''', e.g.
<source lang="shell-session">
<syntaxhighlight lang="shell-session">
# kubectl uncordon kubernetes1001.eqiad.wmnet
# kubectl uncordon kubernetes1001.eqiad.wmnet
# kubectl get nodes
# kubectl get nodes
Line 57: Line 123:
kubernetes1005.eqiad.wmnet  Ready    <none>    231d      v1.12.9
kubernetes1005.eqiad.wmnet  Ready    <none>    231d      v1.12.9
kubernetes1006.eqiad.wmnet  Ready    <none>    231d      v1.12.9
kubernetes1006.eqiad.wmnet  Ready    <none>    231d      v1.12.9
</source>
</syntaxhighlight>


The pods are not rebalanced automatically, i.e. the rebooted node is free of pods initially.
The pods are not rebalanced automatically, i.e. the rebooted node is free of pods initially.


=== Restarting calico-node ===
=== Restarting specific components ===


calico-node maitains a BGP session with the core routers if you intend to restart this service you should use the following procedure
kube-controller-manager and kube-scheduler are components of the API server. In production multiple ones run and perform via the API an election to determine which one is the master. Restarting both is without grave consequences so it's safe to do. However both are critical components in as such that there are required for the overall cluster to function smoothly. kube-scheduler is crucial for node failovers, pod evictions, etc while kube-controller-manager packs multiple controller components and is critical for responding to pod failures, depools etc.


# drain the node on the kube controler as shown above
commands would be <syntaxhighlight lang="bash">
# <code>systemctl restart calico-node</code> on the kube worker
sudo systemctl restart kube-controller-manager
# Wait for BGP sessions on the coure router to re-established
sudo systemctl restart kube-scheduler
# uncordon the node on the kube controler as shown above
</syntaxhighlight>


you can use the following command on the cour routers to check BGP status (use <code>match 64602</code> for codfw)
=== Restarting the API server ===


<source lang="shell-session">
It's behind LVS in production, it's fine to restart it as long as enough time is given between the restarts across the cluster.
# show bgp summary | match 64601     
<syntaxhighlight lang="bash">
10.64.0.121          64601        220        208      0      2      32:13 Establ
sudo systemctl restart kube-apiserver
10.64.0.145          64601    824512    795240      0      1 12w1d 21:45:51 Establ
</syntaxhighlight>
10.64.16.75          64601        161        152      0      2      23:25 Establ
10.64.32.18          64601    824596    795247      0      2 12w1d 21:46:45 Establ
10.64.32.23          64601        130        123      0      2      18:59 Establ
10.64.48.52          64601    782006    754152      0      3 11w4d 11:13:52 Establ
2620:0:861:101:10:64:0:121      64601        217        208      0      2      32:12 Establ
2620:0:861:101:10:64:0:145      64601    824472    795240      0      1 12w1d 21:45:51 Establ
2620:0:861:102:10:64:16:75      64601        160        152      0      2      23:25 Establ
2620:0:861:103:10:64:32:18      64601    824527    795246      0      1 12w1d 21:46:45 Establ
2620:0:861:103:10:64:32:23      64601        130        123      0      2      18:59 Establ
2620:0:861:107:10:64:48:52      64601    782077    754154      0      2 11w4d 11:14:13 Establ
</source>


=== Restarting specific components ===


kube-controller-manager and kube-scheduler are components of the API server. In production multiple ones run and perform via the API an election to determine which one is the master. Restarting both is without grave consequences so it's safe to do. However both are critical components in as such that there are required for the overall cluster to function smoothly. kube-scheduler is crucial for node failovers, pod evictions, etc while kube-controller-manager packs multiple controller components and is critical for responding to pod failures, depools etc.
=== Switch the active staging cluster (eqiad<->codfw) ===
We do have one staging cluster per DC, mostly to separate staging of kubernetes and components from staging of the services running on top of it. To provide staging services during work on one of the clusters, we can (manually) switch between the DCs:
 
* Switch staging.svc.eqiad.wmnet to point to the new active k8s cluster (we should have a better solution/DNS name for this at some point)
** https://gerrit.wikimedia.org/r/c/operations/dns/+/667982
* Switch the definition of "staging" on the deployment servers:
** https://gerrit.wikimedia.org/r/c/operations/puppet/+/667996
* Switch CI and releases to the other kubestagemaster:
** https://gerrit.wikimedia.org/r/c/operations/puppet/+/668114
** <syntaxhighlight lang="bash">
sudo cumin -b 3 'O:ci::master or O:releases or O:deployment_server' 'run-puppet-agent -q'
</syntaxhighlight>
*Make sure all service deployments are up to date after the switch (e.g. deploy them all)
 
=== Managing pods, jobs and cronjobs ===
 
Commands should be run from the [[Deployment_server|deployment servers]] (at the time of this writing [[deploy1002]]).
 
You need to set the correct context, for example:
kube_env admin eqiad
Other choices are codfw, staging-eqiad and staging-codfw.
 
The management commands is called [[kubectl]].
 
==== Listing cronjobs, jobs and pods ====
kubectl get cronjobs -n <namespace>
kubectl get jobs -n <namespace>
kubectl get pods -n <namespace>
 
==== Deleting a job ====
kubectl delete job <job id>
 
==== Updating the docker image run by a CronJob ====
 
The relationship between the resources is the following:
 
Cronjob --spawns--> Job(s) --spawns--> Pod(s)
 
Note: Technically speaking, it's a tight control loop that lives in kube-controller-manager that does the spawning part, but adding that to the above would make this more confusing.
 
Under normal conditions a docker image version will be updated when a new deploy happens. The cronjob will have the new version. However, already created jobs by the CronJob will not be stopped until they have run to completion.
 
When the job finishes, the cronjob will create new job(s), which in turn will create new pod(s).  


commands would be  
Depending on the correlation between a CronJob scheduling and the job run time there might be a window of time where despite the new deployment, the old job is still running.


sudo systemctl restart kube-controller-manager
Deleting the kubernetes pod created by the job itself will NOT work, i.e. the job will still exist and it will create a new pod (which will still have the old image).
sudo systemctl restart kube-scheduler


=== Restarting the API server ===
So, if we are dealing with a long running kubernetes Job one can get the same effect by deleting the kubernetes job created by the cronjob.


It's behind LVS in production, it's fine to restart it as long as enough time is given between the restarts across the cluster.
[[phab:T280076]] is an example where this was needed.


sudo systemctl restart kube-apiserver
==== Checking which image version a cronjob is using ====
kubectl describe pod <pod in question>
(look for Image:)


== See also ==
== See also ==
* [[Portal:Toolforge/Admin/Kubernetes|Toolforge Kubernetes cluster design and administration]]
 
* [[Help:Toolforge/Web|Toolforge Kubernetes webservice help]]
* [[Kubernetes/Clusters/New|Adding a new Kubernetes cluster]]
* [[Help:Toolforge/Kubernetes|Toolforge Kubernetes general help]]
* [[Deployments on kubernetes|Deployments on Kubernetes]]
* [[Kubernetes/Kubernetes Education|Kubernetes Education]]
 
==Toolforge Info==
*[[Portal:Toolforge/Admin/Kubernetes|Toolforge Kubernetes cluster design and administration]]
*[[Help:Toolforge/Web|Toolforge Kubernetes webservice help]]
*[[Help:Toolforge/Kubernetes|Toolforge Kubernetes general help]]


[[Category:Kubernetes]]
[[Category:Kubernetes]]
[[Category:SRE Service Operations]]

Revision as of 16:35, 1 September 2021

For information about Kubernetes in the Toolforge environment see Help:Toolforge/Kubernetes.

Kubernetes (often abbreviated k8s) is an open-source system for automating deployment, and management of applications running in containers. This page collects some notes/docs on the Kubernetes setup in the Foundation production environment.

Clusters

The list of currently maintained clusters in WMF, split by realm and team is at Kubernetes/Clusters

Packages

We deploy kubernetes in WMF production using Debian packages where appropriate. There is an upgrade policy in place for defining the timeframe and versions we run at every point in time. It's under Kubernetes/Kubernetes_Infrastructure_upgrade_policy. For more technical information on how we build the Debian packages have a look at Kubernetes/Packages

Images

For how our images are built and maintained have a look at Kubernetes/Images

Services

A service in Kubernetes is an 'abstract way to expose an application running on a set of workloads as a network service'.

Debugging

For a quick intro into the debugging actions one can take during a problem in production look at Kubernetes/Helm. There will also be a guide posted under Kubernetes/Kubectl

Administration

Create a new cluster

Documentation for creating a new cluster is in Kubernetes/Clusters/New

Add a new service

To add a new service to the clusters:

  1. Ensure the service has it's ports registered at: Service ports
  2. Create deployment user/tokens in the puppet private (you can use a randomly generated 22-character [A-z0-9] password) and public repos. Example commits:
  3. Add a Kubernetes namespace. Example commit:
  4. At this point, you can safely merge the changes (after somebody from Service Ops validates). After merging, it is important to run the commands in the next step, so to avoid impacting other people rolling out changes later on.
  5. Setting up in staging-codfw cluster (and then to the other clusters)

On a cumin server

sudo cumin -b 4 -s 2 kubemaster* 'run-puppet-agent'

On deploy1002:

sudo run-puppet-agent
sudo -i
cd /srv/deployment-charts/helmfile.d/admin_ng/
helmfile -e staging-codfw -i apply

The command above should show you a diff in namespaces/quotas/etc.. related to your new service. If you don't see a diff, ping somebody from the Service Ops team! Check that everything is ok:

 kube_env $YOUR-SERVICE-NAME staging-codfw
 kubectl get ns
 kubectl get pods 

You should be able to see info about your namespace. kubectl get pods should show a tiller pod.
Repeat for the staging-eqiad, eqiad and codfw clusters even if you aren't ready to fully deploy your service. Leaving undeployed things will impede further operations by other people.

Deploy a service to staging

At this point you should have a a Chart for your service (TODO: link to docs?), and will need to setup a helmfile.d/services directory in the operations/deployment-charts repository for the deployment. You can copy the structure (helmfile.yaml, values.yaml, values-staging.yaml, etc.) from helmfile.d/services/_example_ and customize as needed.

You can proceed to deploy the new service to staging for real. Don't worry for TLS (if needed) since in staging it will be added a default config for your service auto-magically. Things are slightly different for production.

On deploy1002:

 cd /srv/deployment-charts/helmfile.d/services/YOUR-SERVICE-NAME-HERE
 helmfile -e staging -i apply

The command above will show a diff related to the new service, make sure that everything looks fine and then hit Yes to proceed.

Testing a service

  1. Now we can test the service in staging. Use the very handy endpoint: http(s)://staging.svc.eqiad.wmnet:$YOUR-SERVICE-PORT to quickly test if everything works as expected.

Deploy a service to production

  1. Create certificates for the new service, if it has an HTTPS endpoint (remember that this step for staging is automatically handled for you, but for production it is not).
  2. Enable TLS for Kubernetes deployments
  3. If the new service requires specific secrets, commit them to /srv/private/hieradata/role/common/deployment_server.yaml
  4. At this point, you need to update the admin config for eqiad and codfw (if you have configs for both of course):
    • On deploy1002: sudo -i; cd /srv/deployment-charts/helmfile.d/admin/codfw/; kube_env admin codfw; ./cluster-helmfile.sh -i apply
    • On deploy1002: sudo -i; cd /srv/deployment-charts/helmfile.d/admin/eqiad/; kube_env admin eqiad; ./cluster-helmfile.sh -i apply
  5. Then the final step, namely deploying the new service:
    • On deploy1002: cd /srv/deployment-charts/helmfile.d/services/YOUR-SERVICE-NAME-HERE; helmfile -e codfw -i apply
    • On deploy1002: cd /srv/deployment-charts/helmfile.d/services/YOUR-SERVICE-NAME-HERE; helmfile -e eqiad -i apply

The service can now be accessed via the registered port on any of the kubernetes nodes (for manual testing).

If you need the service to be easily accessible from outside of the cluster, you might want to add Add a new load balanced service.

Rebooting a worker node

The unpolite way

To reboot a worker node, you can just reboot it in our environment. The platform will understand the event and respawn the pods on other nodes. However the system does not automatically rebalance itself currently (pods are not rescheduled on the node after it has been rebooted)

The polite way (recommended)

If you feel like being more polite, use kubectl drain, it will configure the worker node to no longer create new pods and move the existing pods to other workers. Draining the node will take time. Rough numbers on 2019-12-11 are at around 60 seconds.

# kubectl drain --ignore-daemonsets kubernetes1001.eqiad.wmnet
# kubectl describe pods  --all-namespaces | awk  '$1=="Node:" {print $NF}' | sort -u
kubernetes1002.eqiad.wmnet/10.64.16.75
kubernetes1003.eqiad.wmnet/10.64.32.23
kubernetes1004.eqiad.wmnet/10.64.48.52
kubernetes1005.eqiad.wmnet/10.64.0.145
kubernetes1006.eqiad.wmnet/10.64.32.18
# kubectl get nodes
NAME                         STATUS                     ROLES     AGE       VERSION
kubernetes1001.eqiad.wmnet   Ready,SchedulingDisabled   <none>    2y352d    v1.12.9
kubernetes1002.eqiad.wmnet   Ready                      <none>    2y352d    v1.12.9
kubernetes1003.eqiad.wmnet   Ready                      <none>    2y352d    v1.12.9
kubernetes1004.eqiad.wmnet   Ready                      <none>    559d      v1.12.9
kubernetes1005.eqiad.wmnet   Ready                      <none>    231d      v1.12.9
kubernetes1006.eqiad.wmnet   Ready                      <none>    231d      v1.12.9

When the node has been rebooted, it can be configured to reaccept pods using kubectl uncordon, e.g.

# kubectl uncordon kubernetes1001.eqiad.wmnet
# kubectl get nodes
NAME                         STATUS    ROLES     AGE       VERSION
kubernetes1001.eqiad.wmnet   Ready     <none>    2y352d    v1.12.9
kubernetes1002.eqiad.wmnet   Ready     <none>    2y352d    v1.12.9
kubernetes1003.eqiad.wmnet   Ready     <none>    2y352d    v1.12.9
kubernetes1004.eqiad.wmnet   Ready     <none>    559d      v1.12.9
kubernetes1005.eqiad.wmnet   Ready     <none>    231d      v1.12.9
kubernetes1006.eqiad.wmnet   Ready     <none>    231d      v1.12.9

The pods are not rebalanced automatically, i.e. the rebooted node is free of pods initially.

Restarting specific components

kube-controller-manager and kube-scheduler are components of the API server. In production multiple ones run and perform via the API an election to determine which one is the master. Restarting both is without grave consequences so it's safe to do. However both are critical components in as such that there are required for the overall cluster to function smoothly. kube-scheduler is crucial for node failovers, pod evictions, etc while kube-controller-manager packs multiple controller components and is critical for responding to pod failures, depools etc.

commands would be

sudo systemctl restart kube-controller-manager
sudo systemctl restart kube-scheduler

Restarting the API server

It's behind LVS in production, it's fine to restart it as long as enough time is given between the restarts across the cluster.

sudo systemctl restart kube-apiserver


Switch the active staging cluster (eqiad<->codfw)

We do have one staging cluster per DC, mostly to separate staging of kubernetes and components from staging of the services running on top of it. To provide staging services during work on one of the clusters, we can (manually) switch between the DCs:

Managing pods, jobs and cronjobs

Commands should be run from the deployment servers (at the time of this writing deploy1002).

You need to set the correct context, for example:

kube_env admin eqiad

Other choices are codfw, staging-eqiad and staging-codfw.

The management commands is called kubectl.

Listing cronjobs, jobs and pods

kubectl get cronjobs -n <namespace>
kubectl get jobs -n <namespace>
kubectl get pods -n <namespace>

Deleting a job

kubectl delete job <job id>

Updating the docker image run by a CronJob

The relationship between the resources is the following:

Cronjob --spawns--> Job(s) --spawns--> Pod(s)

Note: Technically speaking, it's a tight control loop that lives in kube-controller-manager that does the spawning part, but adding that to the above would make this more confusing.

Under normal conditions a docker image version will be updated when a new deploy happens. The cronjob will have the new version. However, already created jobs by the CronJob will not be stopped until they have run to completion.

When the job finishes, the cronjob will create new job(s), which in turn will create new pod(s).

Depending on the correlation between a CronJob scheduling and the job run time there might be a window of time where despite the new deployment, the old job is still running.

Deleting the kubernetes pod created by the job itself will NOT work, i.e. the job will still exist and it will create a new pod (which will still have the old image).

So, if we are dealing with a long running kubernetes Job one can get the same effect by deleting the kubernetes job created by the cronjob.

phab:T280076 is an example where this was needed.

Checking which image version a cronjob is using

kubectl describe pod <pod in question>

(look for Image:)

See also

Toolforge Info