You are browsing a read-only backup copy of Wikitech. The live site can be found at wikitech.wikimedia.org
The Analytics Mysql Meta instance is a Mariadb database currently running on the Analytics Hadoop coordinator host (an-coord1001), that hosts some low volume db schemas related to Hadoop tools like Hive, Oozie, Druid, etc..
MariaDB [(none)]> show databases; +---------------------+ | Database | +---------------------+ | druid | | druid_public_eqiad | | hive_metastore | | hue | | hue_next | | oozie | | search_airflow | | superset_production | | superset_staging | +---------------------+
The Mariadb instance collects metadata about the following systems:
- Both Druid clusters (Analytics/Systems/Druid)
- Superset staging and live hosts (Analytics/Systems/Superset)
- Hue (Analytics/Cluster/Hue)
- Oozie (Analytics/Systems/Cluster/Oozie)
- Hive Server2 and Metastore (Analytics/Systems/Cluster/Hive)
- Airflow for the Search instance
Please remember that any maintenance to the database will need to keep into consideration that we have replication to db1108.
This is a mistake that I made after replication was set up the first time:
- created a new db called hue_next (I was testing a new version of Hue)
- granted to the hue user some privileges for hue_next
- replication broken on db1108 + icinga alarms
The main problem was that at the time we replicated only the databases, not the users on db1108 (since we only needed the replication user and not the rest) so when the grant command was replicated, it failed. The fix was easy, basically adding users to the db on db1108, but please keep this in mind when operating on an-coord1001.
There are currently two backup workflows currently running:
- All the above database are replicated to an-coord1002.
- All the above databases are replicated to db1108, see Analytics/Systems/DB_Replica. db1108 dumps are taken periodically into the db provisioning/recovery hosts (dbprov1003), which are stored long term into Bacula.
Restore a Backup
There are multiple ways to restore data:
- Analytics/Systems/DB_Replica shows that we have a replica on db1108 and bacula backups. This will be decommed soon so we shouldn't rely on it.
- MariaDB/Backups#Pre-requisites before recovering the backup and below shows how to do it from dbprov hosts, otherwise it is always possible to run mysqldump or xtrabackup from the replica on db1108.
- We keep 14 days of binlog, that means being able to recover to a specific transaction in time if needed. See https://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/8.0/en/point-in-time-recovery-binlog.html.
Let's say that we have a database on analytics-meta that got modified in an unexpected way, for example the
superset_production db upgraded to a new version of Superset that ended up to be not working. We cannot rely on the db version stored on db1108 (the replica) since it gets updated via mariadb slave few seconds after its master.
Check on dbprov100x when was the last analytics-meta dump taken.
In puppet you should find the dbprov host hosting the analytics-meta dumps. Currently it is dbprov1003:
elukey@dbprov1003:~$ sudo ls /srv/backups/dumps/latest dump.analytics_meta.2020-10-06--02-08-27 elukey@dbprov1003:~$ sudo cat /srv/backups/dumps/latest/dump.analytics_meta.2020-10-06--02-08-27/metadata Started dump at: 2020-10-06 02:08:27 SHOW MASTER STATUS: Log: db1108-bin.000150 Pos: 685545104 GTID:0-171971944-198484076,171974727-171974727-7482 SHOW SLAVE STATUS: Connection name: Host: an-coord1001.eqiad.wmnet Log: analytics-meta-bin.017481 Pos: 10114597 GTID:0-171971944-198484076,171974727-171974727-7482
We have some good info from the metadata file: name of the binlog file and position of the last transaction recorded in the dump. The next step is to find all the transactions happened between when the dump was taken and the last known good state of the database.
Make a list of binlogs that were created AFTER the binlog registered in the metadata file
In this case, on db1108 we have to check all the binlogs in the mariadb's data dir after db1108-bin.000150:
elukey@db1108:/srv/sqldata.analytics_meta$ ls -lht db1108-bin.[0-9]* -rw-rw---- 1 mysql mysql 969M Oct 12 14:51 db1108-bin.000160 -rw-rw---- 1 mysql mysql 1001M Oct 12 00:52 db1108-bin.000159 -rw-rw---- 1 mysql mysql 1001M Oct 11 08:59 db1108-bin.000158 -rw-rw---- 1 mysql mysql 1001M Oct 10 17:12 db1108-bin.000157 -rw-rw---- 1 mysql mysql 1001M Oct 10 01:00 db1108-bin.000156 -rw-rw---- 1 mysql mysql 1001M Oct 9 10:37 db1108-bin.000155 -rw-rw---- 1 mysql mysql 1001M Oct 8 21:15 db1108-bin.000154 -rw-rw---- 1 mysql mysql 1001M Oct 8 06:24 db1108-bin.000153 -rw-rw---- 1 mysql mysql 1001M Oct 7 14:53 db1108-bin.000152 -rw-rw---- 1 mysql mysql 1001M Oct 6 23:27 db1108-bin.000151 -rw-rw---- 1 mysql mysql 1001M Oct 6 07:35 db1108-bin.000150 -rw-rw---- 1 mysql mysql 1001M Oct 5 16:17 db1108-bin.000149 -rw-rw---- 1 mysql mysql 1001M Oct 5 01:12 db1108-bin.000148 -rw-rw---- 1 mysql mysql 1001M Oct 4 09:57 db1108-bin.000147 -rw-rw---- 1 mysql mysql 1001M Oct 3 18:55 db1108-bin.000146 -rw-rw---- 1 mysql mysql 1001M Oct 3 04:53 db1108-bin.000145 [..more..]
From the above ls, it looks that we have 11 binlogs to check, from 000150 to 000160.
Find the last good transaction from the binlog
We should now find the last transaction for the superset_production db before the problem occurred (basically the last good known state). Something very quick and easy to spot the right file could be to start from the latests, dump their content and see the first one containing alter table statements.
elukey@db1108:/srv/sqldata.analytics_meta$ sudo mysqlbinlog --base64-output=decode-rows --database superset_production db1108-bin.000160 | grep -i alter ALTER TABLE dashboard_email_schedules ADD COLUMN slack_channel TEXT ALTER TABLE slice_email_schedules ADD COLUMN slack_channel TEXT ALTER TABLE row_level_security_filters DROP FOREIGN KEY row_level_security_filters_ibfk_3 ALTER TABLE row_level_security_filters DROP COLUMN table_id ALTER TABLE query ADD COLUMN ctas_method VARCHAR(16) ALTER TABLE dbs ADD COLUMN allow_cvas BOOL ALTER TABLE dbs ADD CHECK (allow_cvas IN (0, 1)) ALTER TABLE dbs DROP COLUMN perm
You should be able to find a position (end_log_pos) in the binlog right before the alters, record it and proceed with the next step.
Use mysqlbinlog to create a dedicated recovery file
Every binlog has its own range of positions, that may overlap, so you should not apply --start and --stop position to all of them to avoid loosing data. Let's assume that the end_log_pos found in the previous step is 70620843, found in db1108-bin.000160. The procedure then should be:
sudo mysqlbinlog --database superset_production --start-position 685545104 db1108-bin.000150 >> recovery_binlog_superset_production sudo mysqlbinlog --database superset_production db1108-bin.000151 ... db1108-bin.000159 >> recovery_binlog_superset_production sudo mysqlbinlog --database superset_production --stop-position 70620843 db1108-bin.000160 >> recovery_binlog_superset_production
Recover the database
At this point you should be able to use the guide outlined earlier on to restore the last dump of the database needed, and then apply the recovery_binlog simply with
cat recovery_binlog_superset_production | sudo mysql -d superset_production
This procedure should be used only if an-coord1001 is not available for some reason, for example unrecoverable hardware failure. There is no automatic failover, only a manual one (described by this procedure). The high level idea is the following:
- Check what daemons are running on an-coord1001 vs an-coord1002. The Oozie/Presto daemons' puppet profiles might need to be added to the standby role.
- Ssh to db1108 and dump the status of replication to a file (
sudo mysql -S /run/mysqld/mysqld.analytics_meta.sock "show slave status\G" > replication_status)
- Then stop replication on the Analytics Meta's mysql instance (
sudo mysql -S /run/mysqld/mysqld.analytics_meta.sockand
stop slave; reset slave all).
- Do the same on an-coord1002.
- Look for all occurrences of an-coord1001 in puppet and figure out the ones that need to be moved to an-coord1002. A high level list is:
- hive metastore mysql configuration (hive-site.xml)
- oozie mysql configuration (oozie-site.xml)
- druid clusters configuration (druid common config, in hiera)
- superset configs (superset_config.py)
- hue config for oozie and hive
- airflow mysql config for Search (alert them when this happens to warn about airflow working in degraded mode).
- Merge the above change and run puppet across the hosts, you'll likely need to roll restart the impacted daemons.
- At this point, you should have recovery.
- Important: Bacula backups are happening weekly and they may interfere with daemons using the database, due to locking etc.. In order to temporary disable backups, comment the lines related to analytics meta in https://gerrit.wikimedia.org/r/c/operations/puppet/+/617650/1/modules/profile/templates/mariadb/backup_config/dbprov1002.cnf.erb