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Analytics/Data Lake

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Revision as of 02:28, 17 September 2016 by imported>Milimetric (→‎Query data in Hadoop)
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The Analytics Data Lake (ADL) refers to the collection, processing, and publishing of data from Wikimedia projects. At first, the Data Lake focuses on collecting historical data about editing, including revisions, pages, users, and making it available in an analytics-friendly way for everyone, publicly. As the Data Lake matures, we will add any and all data that can be safely made public. The infrastructure will support public releases of datasets, out of the box.


Initial Scope

Consolidating Editing Data

Millions of people edit our projects. Information about the knowledge they generate and improve is trapped in hundreds of separate mysql databases and large XML dump files. We will create analytics-friendly schemas and transform this separated data to fit those schemas. HDFS is the best storage solutions for this, so that's what we'll use. We will make the schemas and the data extraction using an append-only style, so actions like deleting pages and supressing usertext can be first class citizens. This will allow us to create redacted streams of data that can be published safely.

It will of course be important to keep this data up to date. To accomplish this we will connect to real-time systems like Event Bus to get the latest data. From time to time, we'll compare to make sure we have no replication gaps.

Hive Tables

When storing to HDFS, we will create well documented, unified tables on top of this data. This will be useful for any batch or really long running queries.

Druid

Druid and any other Online Analytics Processing (OLAP) systems we use will serve this data to internal and maybe external users as well. This data serving layer allows us to run complicated queries that would otherwise consume massive resources in a relational database. If we're able to properly redact and re-load this data on a regular basis, we will be able to open this layer to the public.

Analytics Query Service / Dumps

We will continue and push slices of this data out to the world through our query service (AQS) which currently hosts our Pageview and Unique Devices data. We will also make the most useful forms of this data available in static file dumps. These dumps will contain strictly metadata and shouldn't be confused with the "right to fork"-oriented richer dumps. Those may be easier to generate using this system as well, see below.


Pleasant Side Effects

One potential use of this technology will be to help replace the aging Dumps process. Incremental dumps, more accurately redacted dumps, reliable re-runnable dumps should all be much easier to achieve with the Data Lake, and the data streams that feed into it, than they are with the current set of dumps scripts and manual intervention.

Project Documentation

Architecture

Systems

Various experiences[1] on gathering and computing on full edit data history has shown that it's a bad idea to rebuild a full edit data set on regular basis in opposition to incrementally update it.

In order to get there, two core systems are needed:

  • Historical data extraction system: It extracts historical data from either the mediawiki databases and/or the XML dumps and convert and refine it to the schema used (see below for schema description).
  • Incremental data update system: It handles events flowing through a streaming system and updates an already existing data set by transforming and refining the events into the needed schema.

Once those two systems are built and tested, a date needs to decided upon which the data set will be built, from historical system before D, and from incremental system after D. We also plan to maintain the historical system even if its use is less regular than the incremental one, to ensure new data could be extracted historically in the future.

Stack

The plan is to use Hadoop to both store data and compute the various ETL / refinement steps (cheap, reliable and already in place).

Feeding systems will be MariaDB for historical needs since it contains more and better quality data than xml dumps,and Kafka through EventBus for streaming input data.

Querying systems are planned to be Druid for usual / simple metrics, Hive and/or Spark for complex queries, and possibly the Analytics Query Service to provide metrics externally.

Data schema

Historical data

  • Intermediate schema -- Fed transforming and enhancing raw Media wiki data. It contains Revision_change, Page_change and User_change tables [Still WIP]. Rows contain entity state at a moment in time, the next state change time, and event oriented information, such as who did the change, and what type of change it is.

Incremental data

Query data in Hadoop

  • Fully denormalized schema containing event oriented rows with null values in fields not related to the current event. In hive syntax:
CREATE EXTERNAL TABLE edit_history (

    -- Generic event information
    -- Populated for every event
    wiki_db                                 string,
    -- revision, page, user
    event_entity                            string,
    -- create, move, delete, rename, etc.
    event_type                              string,
    -- mediawiki format yyyyMMddHHmmss
    event_timestamp                         string,
    -- from the revision, log, archive, etc.
    event_comment                           string,
    -- fields with _latest are the most recent values for this user
    -- the other fields are the values at the time of the event
    event_user_id                           bigint,
    event_user_text                         string,
    event_user_text_latest                  string,
    event_user_blocks                       array<string>,
    event_user_blocks_latest                array<string>,
    event_user_groups                       array<string>,
    event_user_groups_latest                array<string>,
    event_user_creation_timestamp           string,

    -- For page and revision events, the page that's being acted on (new revision, moved, deleted, etc.)
    -- fields with _latest are the most recent values for this page
    -- the other fields are the values at the time of the event
    page_id                                 bigint,
    page_title                              string,
    page_title_latest                       string,
    page_namespace                          int,
    page_namespace_latest                   int,
    page_creation_timestamp                 string,

    -- For user events, the user that's being acted on (blocked, renamed, etc.)
    -- fields with _latest are the most recent values for this user
    -- the other fields are the values at the time of the event
    user_id                                 bigint,
    user_text                               string,
    user_text_latest                        string,
    user_blocks                             array<string>,
    user_blocks_latest                      array<string>,
    user_groups                             array<string>,
    user_groups_latest                      array<string>,
    user_creation_timestamp                 string,

    -- For revision events, the revision that's being acted on (created, visibility chagned, etc.)
    revision_id                             bigint,
    revision_parent_id                      bigint,
    revision_minor_edit                     boolean,
    revision_text_bytes                     bigint,
    -- joined by rev_parent_id and got the byte difference (not all records joined cleanly)
    revision_text_bytes_diff                bigint,
    revision_text_sha1                      string,
    revision_content_model                  string,
    revision_content_format                 string,
    -- a best guess as to when this revision was deleted (if it came from the archive table)
    -- if this was not available, we used the timestamp of the last revision for the archived page
    revision_deleted_timestamp              string,
    -- These last two are not vetted yet, but they'd be valuable for revert work (we'll give them better names too)
    revision_most_recent_revert_timestamp   string,
    revision_sha1_revert                    boolean
)
;

-- If you'd like to actually create the table, add this before the semicolonː
ROW FORMAT SERDE
  'org.apache.hadoop.hive.ql.io.parquet.serde.ParquetHiveSerDe'
STORED AS INPUTFORMAT
  'org.apache.hadoop.hive.ql.io.parquet.MapredParquetInputFormat'
OUTPUTFORMAT
  'org.apache.hadoop.hive.ql.io.parquet.MapredParquetOutputFormat'
LOCATION
  'hdfs://analytics-hadoop/user/mforns/denormalizedFixed'

Query data in Druid

Ongoing Work

EventBus

  • Schema update -- task T134502
  • Mediawiki update to handle schema update -- task T137287
  • New event schema to come after this set of patches

Historical data sourcing

  • Hive schema creation and test using simplewiki and a set of test queries on dump generated data -- task T134793
  • ETL for transforming MediaWiki database data to Hive schema for simplewiki -- task T134790
  • Scalability tests to come after pipeline is built

Details not to Forget

  • At page rename, there sometimes is a new page created which has the renamed page original title and redirects to the renamed page. We have left those on the side for the moment.
  • There are user rename log lines that can't be linked back to an actual user. It could be because of deletions, but we're not sure. We should investigate a bit.



  1. Two historical big projects are dumps generation and wikistats, and a two new internal projects are DataWarehouse and measuring edit productivity.
  2. For instance is_new_editor, is_new_productive_editor, and is_new_surviving_editor for users and is_productive, is_reverted and is deleted for revisions.